Any statement starting with “among 18 to 34-year-olds” is usually met with a vague sense of boredom and/or immediate exceptions to whatever follows. The same is likely the case for any statement based on a demographic breakdown. The thing is, researchers don’t use demographics because they’re perfect. They use them because, in some cases, they’re the most accepted way to begin understanding a group of people.

But who hasn’t wondered what’s really behind a given trend or phenomenon? Are people really buying Brand H because they’re usually between 35 and 44, and college educated? Is that mostly it? Or is there something that motivates certain people to participate in a certain activity or buy a certain product? What cuts across demographics that we could be thinking about in addition to more traditional approaches?

These questions are what eventually became a matter of persistent curiosity for us. At PARAGRAPH, we believe that the best way to understand and predict human behavior is by studying deep motivations rather than fleeting impulses. This conviction was solidified when we saw the need for an antidote to the trendwatching treadmill that prioritizes flash-in-the-pan fads over lasting insights. Through years of work, we’ve developed Slow Culture as a framework for making sense of why people do what they do today, and what they might do in the future.

In this series of booklets introducing Slow Culture, we examine the eight eternal human motivations that form the basis of this framework. These motivations manifest themselves differently depending on the time and place, and their trajectories — shown below — trace a broader transformation in collective mood that’s dominating today’s zeitgeist. It’s not the end of the road, but it’s where we are, and Slow Culture will help us fathom what could be next.



Individuality as a risk

Belonging via inherited community

Expression as singular creation

Influence via traditional channels

Duty as upholding the rules

Rebellion as fighting the system

Contentment through a comfort zone

Renewal as a sea change


Individuality as the cost of entry

Belonging via self-made community

Expression as recombination

Influence via eclectic channels

Duty as finding one's own rules

Rebellion as working the system

Contentment through awareness

Renewal as a constant process